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Table 2. Mean annual temperature and relative humidity for selected stations
(E.A. Met. Dept. 1975). Septra Ds
Common associate tree species of the dry montane forest and grassland where A. afra
occurs include Juniperus procera, Hagenia abyssinica, Catha edulis, Polyalthia fulva,
Parinari excelsa, Syzygiuro cordatum, Myrica sallcifolia, Cussonia Septra Ds Tablets arborea, Psiadia arabica,
Cassia floribunda, Ehretia cymosa, Turraea robusta, Euclea divinorum, Phillipia benguelensis,
Erica arborea and Rumex usambarensis.
The species occurs in Zaire, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
Malawi, Angola and South Africa (see distribution map).
A much-branched woody perennial herb l-2m high, shortly rhizomatous; stem ribbed,
smelling strongly of wormwood. Leaves alternate, bipinnatisect, stipules absent; blade
grey-green, aromatic, more or less oval in outline, about 6cm long, ultimate segments
linear, about 2mm long. Inflorescence an elongated racemose panicle; capitula small,
3-4mm in diameter, nodding with an involucre consisting of many rows of ovate bracts;
receptacle flat, naked; florets pale yellow tubular, few outer female, inner bisexual.
Achenes cylindrical, pappus absent.
In Tanzania A. afra flowers between March and July, producing seeds from August to
November - i.e. flowering starts at the onset of the long rains and extends towards
the beginning of the short rains.
4. ESTABLISHED MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL USES
Chabra (Pers. Comm.) observed that A. afra contains santonin, thujone, umbel 1 if erone,
and some polyacetylinic. Watt and Breyer-Brandwi jk (1962) argues that A. afra contains no
santonin. However, they observed that 0.5 per cent of a volatile oil with a camphoraceous
odour was isolated by Godson (Godson, 1922). He also isolated a wax ester (probably Buy Septra ceryl
cerotate), triacontane, scopoletin and quebrachitol . Cineole has been detected in the
5. FOLK MEDICINAL USES
Kokwaro (1975) reports that a fermentation of the heated herb is given to children
with a sore throat, also to cure fever. The plant is also used for indigestion. Roots
are boiled and the decoction drunk 2-3 times a day for intestinal Septra Ds 800 worms. The leaves are
chewed and juice swallowed as an emetic. Chabra (Pers. .Comm. ) observed that A. afra is
used as an anthelmintic particularly for the expulsion of roundworms and threadworm.
Harjula Septra Tablets (1980) found out that a handful of the leaves is boiled to make a dose of
somewhat more than half a litre; the dose may be repeated after 2 days if necessary for
cure of stomach diseases. Roots are cleaned, dried and boiled to form a decoction which
is also used for remedy of stomach diseases.
Watt and Breyer-Brandwi jk (1962) reports that a decoction or infusion of A. afra is
a medicine for bronchial troubles. It is used for coughs and colds, chills, dyspepsia,
loss of appetite, stomach-ache and other gastric derangements, colic, croup, whooping cough;
gout and as a purgative. The infusion or decoction is also used as a lotion to bathe
haemorrhoids; as a hot bath to bring out the rash in measles and in the ear for ear-ache.
It is held in the mouth to ease the ,pains of gum abcesses and to hasten their burning, and
is taken in fever and in blood-poisoning. For further details refer to Watt and Breyer-
Brandwi Jk (1962). During the course of this study it was noted that A. afra is also
considered a cure Septra Cost for malaria.
6. MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
Chabra (Pers. Comm.) observed that santonin, thujone, umbelliferone and some
polyacetylinic compounds have been isolated from A. afra. These compounds are derived
from the leaves and stem of the plant.
7. HARVESTING, CONSERVING AND PREPARATION
A. afra leaves and stems are collected and boiled to form a decoction. Alternatively,
an infusion of leaves and stem is prepared; occasionally it is made up into a syrup by
the addition of sugar.
A. afra leaves and stems after collection are air dried and then tied into bundles
and stored in a dry place.
8. ECONOMICS AND MARKETING
There have been no studies carried out on the economics of A. afra as a traditional
medicine. However, local herbalists collect the herb, prepare it for different remedies
and sell it to local people. Due to its many uses A. afra has a great potential in the
future especially when the active ingredients can be isolated, tested and administered in
large quantities. At this point it would be necessary to raise it on a large scale and
thus boost the income Septra Iv of growers.
The species regenerates from seed only. On ripening the seed falls on the ground
where it germinates during the rainy season. It prefers soft or cultivated soils. The
species does not tolerate shade and thrives with adequate tending. It is often grown
locally on a small scale near houses in Tanzania.
10. MAJOR DISEASES
11. OTHER USES
It is grown as an ornamental, and the leaves are mixed with cosmestic oil as a
Agnew, A.D.Q. Upland Kenya wild flowers. A flora of the Ferns and
(1974) Herbaceous Flowering plants of Upland Septra Ds Tablet Kenya. Oxford
University Press. London. 827 p.
Brenan, J.P.M. and Greenway, P.J. Check-Lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of
(1949) the British Empire. No. 5. Tanganyika Territory.
Imp. For. Inst. Oxford. 653 p.
East Africa Meteorological Department Climatological Statistics For East Africa.
(1975) Part III Tanzania. E.A. Met. Dept. E.A. Community.
Nairobi. 92 o.
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