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Related post: Table 2. Mean annual temperature and relative humidity for selected stations (E.A. Met. Dept. 1975). Septra Ds Common associate tree species of the dry montane forest and grassland where A. afra occurs include Juniperus procera, Hagenia abyssinica, Catha edulis, Polyalthia fulva, Parinari excelsa, Syzygiuro cordatum, Myrica sallcifolia, Cussonia Septra Ds Tablets arborea, Psiadia arabica, Cassia floribunda, Ehretia cymosa, Turraea robusta, Euclea divinorum, Phillipia benguelensis, Erica arborea and Rumex usambarensis. The species occurs in Zaire, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Angola and South Africa (see distribution map). 3. DESCRIPTION A much-branched woody perennial herb l-2m high, shortly rhizomatous; stem ribbed, smelling strongly of wormwood. Leaves alternate, bipinnatisect, stipules absent; blade grey-green, aromatic, more or less oval in outline, about 6cm long, ultimate segments linear, about 2mm long. Inflorescence an elongated racemose panicle; capitula small, 3-4mm in diameter, nodding with an involucre consisting of many rows of ovate bracts; receptacle flat, naked; florets pale yellow tubular, few outer female, inner bisexual. Achenes cylindrical, pappus absent. In Tanzania A. afra flowers between March and July, producing seeds from August to November - i.e. flowering starts at the onset of the long rains and extends towards the beginning of the short rains. 4. ESTABLISHED MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL USES Chabra (Pers. Comm.) observed that A. afra contains santonin, thujone, umbel 1 if erone, and some polyacetylinic. Watt and Breyer-Brandwi jk (1962) argues that A. afra contains no santonin. However, they observed that 0.5 per cent of a volatile oil with a camphoraceous odour was isolated by Godson (Godson, 1922). He also isolated a wax ester (probably Buy Septra ceryl cerotate), triacontane, scopoletin and quebrachitol . Cineole has been detected in the plant. 5. FOLK MEDICINAL USES Kokwaro (1975) reports that a fermentation of the heated herb is given to children with a sore throat, also to cure fever. The plant is also used for indigestion. Roots are boiled and the decoction drunk 2-3 times a day for intestinal Septra Ds 800 worms. The leaves are chewed and juice swallowed as an emetic. Chabra (Pers. .Comm. ) observed that A. afra is used as an anthelmintic particularly for the expulsion of roundworms and threadworm. Harjula Septra Tablets (1980) found out that a handful of the leaves is boiled to make a dose of somewhat more than half a litre; the dose may be repeated after 2 days if necessary for cure of stomach diseases. Roots are cleaned, dried and boiled to form a decoction which is also used for remedy of stomach diseases. Watt and Breyer-Brandwi jk (1962) reports that a decoction or infusion of A. afra is a medicine for bronchial troubles. It is used for coughs and colds, chills, dyspepsia, loss of appetite, stomach-ache and other gastric derangements, colic, croup, whooping cough; gout and as a purgative. The infusion or decoction is also used as a lotion to bathe haemorrhoids; as a hot bath to bring out the rash in measles and in the ear for ear-ache. It is held in the mouth to ease the ,pains of gum abcesses and to hasten their burning, and is taken in fever and in blood-poisoning. For further details refer to Watt and Breyer- Brandwi Jk (1962). During the course of this study it was noted that A. afra is also considered a cure Septra Cost for malaria. 6. MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND MEDICINAL PRODUCTS Chabra (Pers. Comm.) observed that santonin, thujone, umbelliferone and some polyacetylinic compounds have been isolated from A. afra. These compounds are derived from the leaves and stem of the plant. 7. HARVESTING, CONSERVING AND PREPARATION A. afra leaves and stems are collected and boiled to form a decoction. Alternatively, an infusion of leaves and stem is prepared; occasionally it is made up into a syrup by the addition of sugar. A. afra leaves and stems after collection are air dried and then tied into bundles and stored in a dry place. 8. ECONOMICS AND MARKETING There have been no studies carried out on the economics of A. afra as a traditional medicine. However, local herbalists collect the herb, prepare it for different remedies and sell it to local people. Due to its many uses A. afra has a great potential in the future especially when the active ingredients can be isolated, tested and administered in large quantities. At this point it would be necessary to raise it on a large scale and thus boost the income Septra Iv of growers. * 9. SILVICS The species regenerates from seed only. On ripening the seed falls on the ground where it germinates during the rainy season. It prefers soft or cultivated soils. The species does not tolerate shade and thrives with adequate tending. It is often grown locally on a small scale near houses in Tanzania. 10. MAJOR DISEASES None specified. 11. OTHER USES It is grown as an ornamental, and the leaves are mixed with cosmestic oil as a perfume. 12. BIBLIOGRAPHY Agnew, A.D.Q. Upland Kenya wild flowers. A flora of the Ferns and (1974) Herbaceous Flowering plants of Upland Septra Ds Tablet Kenya. Oxford University Press. London. 827 p. Brenan, J.P.M. and Greenway, P.J. Check-Lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of (1949) the British Empire. No. 5. Tanganyika Territory. Imp. For. Inst. Oxford. 653 p. East Africa Meteorological Department Climatological Statistics For East Africa. (1975) Part III Tanzania. E.A. Met. Dept. E.A. Community. Nairobi. 92 o.
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